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Glossary of Indian Cooking Ingredients

Most of the ingredients are available at the grocery stores or supermarkets. Some, though, are special and have to be obtained from the Indian stores. Substitutes may change the character of the dish. It is better to omit an ingredient if not available than to substitute for it. If whole spice is not available , you may use the ground form, but the ground form is less pungent.

Various kinds of spices - dried pomegranate seeds, fenugreek seeds, Psyllium seeds, whole cloves, whole round chilli peppers, green fennel seeds, lovage (ajwain) seeds, cinnamon sticks, star aniseed

Asafoetida (Hing): Dried gum resin from the root of various Iranian and East Indian
plants. Has a strong fetid odor - definitely an acquired taste.

Besan (Besan): Flour of dried chickpeas.

Cardamom (Elaichi ): Dried fruit of a plant. Mostly the seeds are used. Seeds of 4 pods
measure approximately 1/4 tsp.

Coriander (dhania): Aromatic herb of the parsley family. Sold as cilantro or Chinese
parsley. Also sold as seed or dry powder.

Cumin (Jeera): Very aromatic and reminiscent. Sold whole or ground.

Dals (Dal): Hindi name for all members of the legume or pulse family. Commonly used
are: Arhar, Channa, Masur, Mung, Labia (black-eyed peas), Rajma (red kidney beans).

Fennel Seed (Sauf): Has an agreeable odor and licorice flavor. Available whole or
ground.

Fenugreek (Methi): Has a pleasant bitter flavor and sweetish odor.

Garam Masala (Garam Masala): A mixture of spices; details come later.

Chat Masala (Chat Masala): A variation of Garam masala. Available in Indian stores.

Ghee (Ghee): Fat for frying. Pure ghee is clarified butter.

Mustard oil (Larson): Pungent oil made from black mustard seeds.

Mint (Pudina): Aromatic herb. Fresh and dried leaves are used in the preparation of
chutneys. Dried leaves are much less fragrant than the fresh ones.

Pomegranate (Anar dana): A flavoring agent. Has some scent.

Saffron (Kesar): Made of stigmas of a flower grown in Kashmir and Spain. It is aromatic
and yields a yellow color.

Turmeric (Haldi): An aromatic powdered root. Used as a flavoring, and for flavoring
curries.

Tables of Indian Ingredients in various Indian languages and dialects

PULSES AND LEGUMES
ENGLISH HINDI URDU MARATHI BENGALI GUJARATHI TAMIL TELEGU MALAYALAM KANNADA
Bengal Gram (Whole) Chana Chana Sabut Harbara Chola Chana Kothu Kadalai Senagulu Kadala Kadale
Bengal Gram (Split) Chana Dal Chane ki dal Harbar dal Cholar dal Chana Dal Kadalai Parippu Senga Pappu Kadala Parippu Kadale Bele
Bengal Gram (Flour) Besan Besan Besan Beshun Besan Kadalai Mavu Senaga Pindi Kadala Mavu Kadale Hitu
Black Gram (Split) Urad dal Massh ki dal Uddachi dal Mashkalar dal Alad Uluthem Parippu Minappa Pappu Uzhunnu Parippu Udina Hittu
Green Gram (Whole) Moong Sabut Moong Moong Muger dal Mug Pasipayar Pesalu Cherupayar Hesarekalu
Green Gram (Split) Moong dal Mung dal Mugachi dal Moong dal Moong dal Payathum Parippu Pesara Pappu Cherupayar Parippu Hesara Bele
Lentil Masur dal Masoor ki dal Masurdal Moshroori dal Masur dal Masore Parippu Misur Pappu Masur Parippu Masur Bele
Split Gram Tuwar dal Arhar Tur dal Arhar dal Tuberni dal Tuvaram Parippu Kandi Pappu Thuvara Parippu Thugar Bele
Soyabean Bhatmas Soya ki Binje - - Garikalai - - - -

CONDIMENTS AND SPICES
ENGLISH HINDI URDU MARATHI BENGALI GUJARATHI TAMIL TELEGU MALAYALAM KANNADA
Asafoetida Hing Hing Hing Hing Hing Perungayam Inguva Perungayam Hingu
Cardamom Elaychi Elichi Veldola Elaichi Elaychi Ellakai Ellkai Elathari Yellakai
Chili Mirch Mirch Mirchi Lanka Marchu Milagai Mirapakaya Molaku Menasinakayi
Cloves Lavang Loung Lavang Labango Lavang Krambu Lavangalu Krambu Lavanga
Coriander Dhania Dhania Dhane Dhone Dhania Kothamalli Dhaniyalu Kothamalli Korthambari
Cumin Zira Zeera Jira Jire Jiru Jeeragam Jeelakarra Jeerakam Jeerage
Fennel Saunf Saunf Sheopa - - - Sompu Perum Jeerakam -
Fenugreek Methi Methi Methi Methi Methi Venthiyam Menthulu Uluva Menthe
Garlic Lessan Lehsan Lasoon Roshun Lasan Poondu Velluli Velluli Belluli
Ginger Adrak Adrak Ale Ada Adu Inji Allum Inji Shunti
Mace Javithri Hjotri Jayapatri Jayitri Jaypatri Jathipatri Jayapathri Jathipatri -
Nutmeg Jaiphal Jaiphal Jaiphal Jaiphal Jaiphal Jathikkai Jajikayi Jathikka Jajikayi
Oregano Ajwain Ajwain Onva Joan - Omum Vamu Ayamodak Onia
Pepper Kali Mirchi Kali Mirch Mire Golmorich Mari Milagu Mirriyalu Kurumulagu Karimenasu
Tamarind Imli Imli Chinch Tetul Amli Puli Chinthapandu Puli Hunise
Turmeric Haldi Haldi Halad Holud Haldhar Manjal Pasupu Manjal Anashina
Walnut Akhrot Akrot Akrod Akrot Akrot Nattua Krot Kottai Nattua Krot Vitthu Akrothandi -

NUTS AND OILSEEDS
ENGLISH HINDI URDU MARATHI BENGALI GUJARATHI TAMIL TELEGU MALAYALAM KANNADA
Almond Badam Badam Badam Badam Badam Badam Badam Badam -
Cashewnut Kaju Kaju Kaju Hijlibadam Kaju Mundiri Parippu Jeedi Pappu Parangi yandi Geru Beena
Gingelly Til Til Til Til Tal Ellu Nuvvulu Ellu Acchellu
Coconut Nariyal Nariyal Naral Narkel Nariyal Thenga Kobbari Thenga Thenginkai
Groundnut Moong Phalli Moong Phalli Bhui Moong China Moong China Moong Nillakadalai Verusenagakaya Nilakadala Kadalekayi
Linseed Alsi Alsi Juwas Tishi Alsi Alivirai Avise Ginjalu Cheruchana Vithu -
Mustard Rai Rai Mohori Sorse Rai Kadugu Avalu Kadugu Sasuve
Pistachio Pista Pista Pista Pista Pista Pista Pista Pista Pista
Safflower Kardi Karar - - - - Kusuma Ginzalu - -
Sunflower Suriamukhi Suraj Mukhi Suryamuki Surajmuki Suryakanti Suryakanthi Poduthiru Ginzalu Suryakhanti -

CEREALS AND GRAINS
ENGLISH HINDI URDU MARATHI BENGALI GUJARATHI TAMIL TELEGU MALAYALAM KANNADA
Millet Bajra Bajra Bajri Bajra Bajri Kambu Sajjalu Kamboo Sajje
Barley Jau Jau Jau Job Jau Barli Arisi Barli Biyyam Yavam Barli
Buchwheat Kootu Gehoon ka Bhoosa Kuttu Titaphapur - Kotu - Kootu -
Milo Juar Juari Jwari Juar Juwar Cholam Jonnalu Cholam Jola
Maize Makkai Makai Maka Bhutta Makai Makka Cholam Mokka Jonnalu Cholam Kempu Jola
Ragi Mundal Ragi Nachni Madua Ragi Kizhvaragu Ragulu Muthari Ragi
Rice (raw) Arwa Chawal Chawal Tandool Atap Chaal Chokha Chawal Pacharisi Biyyam Pachari Akki
Rice (parboiled) Usna Chawal Ubla hua Chawal Ukda Tandool Siddha Chowl Ukra Chawl Puzhungal Arisi Uppudu Biyyam Puzhangalari Kusubalakki
Semolina Sooki Sooji Rawa Sooji Rawa Ravai Rawa Rawa Rawa
Wheat Gehun Gehoon Gahu Gom Ghau Godumai Godhumalu Gothambu Godhi
Wheat flour Atta Gehoon ka atta Kaneek Atta Ato Godumai Mavu Godhuma Pindi Gothambu Mavu Godhi Hittu
Wheat flour (refined) Maida Maida Maida Maida Maida Maidu mavu Maidi pindi Maidamavu Godhi Hittu

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